Physicochemical and Functional Properties of Tropical Tuber Starches: A Review

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  1. Introduction
  2. Extraction Techniques
  3. Other components in Starch
  4. Colour and Appearance
  5. Granule Shape and Size
  6. Spectral Features
  7. X-Ray Diffraction Pattern
  8. Molecular Weight
  9. Amylose Content
  10. Thermal Characteristics
  11. Gelatinisation and Pasting Temperatures
  12. Viscosity
  13. Swelling Power
  14. Solubility
  15. Clarity
  16. Sol stability
  17. Digestibility
  18. Conclusions

18. Conclusions

The studies on the different tuber crops reveal the vast variability available among them, which is not generally observed in the case of cereal starches. The high viscosity of cassava and Canna starches makes these starches very useful in many food and industrial applications especially where high thickening power is desired. The low viscosity of aroid starches can be exploited in paper industries where lower viscosity and good film forming capacity are preferred. The small granular size of Colocasia and D.esculenta and D.dumetorum starches makes these ideal as filter in biodegradable plastics, and in aerosois and talcum powders. The clarity of cassava, Canna and yam starches is useful in many food applications. Similarly the good gel strength of these starches, especially Canna starch can be utilized in a wide array of food products. The easy gelatinisation of cassava and sweet potato starches can make them suitable in the manufacture of hydrolysis products derived from starch. The range of characters observed makes the tuber starches amenable to different applications based on their properties in place of different applications based on their properties in place of chemically modified starches. An awareness of their potential uses can help in large scale cultivation of these crops and extraction of starch from them. It is also possible to modify the starch properties by simple physical methods like hydrothermal or steam-pressure treatments. Latest developments in biotechnology can also be tried to modify the starches. These include fermentation of starch by the use of selective organisms or enzymatic modifications, which can bring about specific substitutions [105-107,147, 180-182]. Lot of work has been done on fermentation of cassava and its effect on starch quality whereas the use of enzymes in starch derivatisation has not been exploited and offers very good scope for value addition [183-188].

BU Brabender units
CP-MAS13C NMR Cross Polarised Magic Angle
  Scattering 13Carbon Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
CTCRI Central Tuber Crops Research Institute
DMSO Dimethyl sulphoxide
DP Degree of polymerization
DS Degree of substitution
DSC Different Scanning Calorimetry
FTIR Fourier Transform Infra Red
GMS Glyceryl monosterate
PK Peak Viscosity
RVA Rapid Visco Analyser
SNU Stirring number Units
XRD X-Ray diffraction

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